Skin Concerns


Our skin is a big deal – literally. It’s the largest organ in the body and one of the most complicated. It has many roles in the maintenance of life and health, but also has many potential problems, with more than 3,000 possible skin disorders. Not only does the skin hold everything in, it also plays a crucial role in providing an airtight, watertight and flexible barrier between the outside world and the highly regulated systems within the body. It also helps with temperature regulation, immune defense, vitamin production, and sensation. The skin is divided into three layers known as the epidermis, dermis and subcutis. These layers are well defined but together they allow the skin to function effectively. The epidermis is subdivided into five layers:

  • stratum corneum
  • stratum lucidum
  • stratum granulosum
  • stratum spinosum
  • stratum germinativum

Between the epidermis and the dermis is a thin sheet of fibers called the basement membrane. The epidermis is the outermost, cellular layer of the skin which varies in thickness depending on the body site. On average its less than half a millimetre thick. The epidermis resembles a “brick wall” of cells known as keratinocytes, which are bound tightly together and act to prevent free movement of moisture, pathogens and chemicals into or out of the body. Keratinocytes replicate from the basal layer and work their way up to the outer surface (known as the stratum corneum) over a period of about 28 days. Once they reach the surface the tight bonds between them break apart and they are shed. Other than keratinocytes, pigment-producing cells known as melanocytes and immune cells known as Langerhans cells also exist within the epidermis. Melanocytes inhabit the basement membrane, at the base of the epidermis and produce a pigment known as melanin both innately (giving the skin its natural colour), and in response to ultraviolet light (UV) exposure (giving the skin a sun tan). The melanin is a brown pigment that is taken up into the overlying keratinocytes. This pigment will then absorb UV light (from the sun) when it hits the skin, thereby protecting the basal calls underneath from UV damage. The epidermal cells also develop hair follicles, sweat glands and sebaceous (oil) glands which extend down into the layer below known as the dermis. The small ducts from each of these glands open onto the skin surface. Sweat and sebum (oil) provide an antibacterial and protective barrier on the skin. The dermis lies beneath the epidermis and is 20-30 times thicker. It’s made up of a dense layer of fibrous (collagen) and elastic (elastin) tissue. The dermis gives the skin its integrity, strength and elasticity; and houses blood vessels, glands and hair follicles, as well as nerves and their receptors.

Beneath the dermis lies the subcutis (also known as the hypodermis), a specialised layer of adipose (fat) and fibrous tissue. The thickness of this layer varies dramatically depending on the site and a person’s body shape and weight. It cushions the body from external trauma, insulates from the cold and stores energy (fat). Normal healthy skin has many important roles and thus should be treated with care and respect. Many people only start focusing on the skin once there is an abnormality or at least a perceived problem.

Common concerns include dryness, sensitivity, oiliness, congestion, wrinkles, sun damage and signs of ageing. Although these states are all within the spectrum of normal functional skin, they may be considered problematic if severe or undesirable.Normal, healthy skin that is not exposed to excessive physical or environmental insults may not require any specific care or protection, but for those who want to optimize or improve their skin, some basic steps can make a big difference. The key to skin care is consistency and routine, and it can take time to appreciate the changes. A basic regime of daily protection from excessive UV radiation, protection from excessive irritation and drying (by avoiding drying soaps, excess water or irritating chemicals) and aiding of the skin’s barrier properties (using a moisturizing protective layer) will result in noticeable improvement in almost all skin. Switching and changing products and routines is usually counterproductive and will prevent you from seeing expected improvement in time. It’s worth looking after your skin, as you’ll wear it every day for the rest of your life. The primary function of the skin is to act as a barrier. The skin provides protection from mechanical impacts and pressure, variations in temperature, micro-organisms, radiation and chemicals. The basic day-to-day functions include:

  • Working as a barrier – protecting against water loss as well as physical and chemical injury, and bugs 
  • Helping us fight off bugs, allergens, toxins and carcinogens via the parts of our immune system that exist in our skin
  • Regulating our temperature by dilating and constricting our blood vessels near the skin surface, controlling the transfer of heat out of the body. Temperature is also regulated by evaporative cooling due to sweat production and by the insulating effect of erect hairs on the skin surface. Heat loss is also affected by the insulating layer of subcutaneous fat
  • Protecting us from UV radiation by producing melanin
  • Giving us the sense of touch _ providing interaction with physical surroundings, allowing all fine and gross motor activities and allowing pleasurable and sexual stimulation
  • The production of Vitamin D, which helps prevent many diseases including osteoporosis, cancer, heart disease, obesity and neurological diseases
  • Wound healing
  • Beauty and physical attraction – the quality and condition of the skin greatly contributes to the perception of health, wellness, youth and beauty.

Skin disorders vary greatly in symptoms and severity. They can be temporary or permanent, and may be painless or painful. Some have situational causes, while others may be genetic. Some skin conditions are minor, and others can be life-threatening. While most skin disorders are minor, others can indicate a more serious issue; these include:

  • Atopic dermatitis: also known as eczema, this is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by dry, red, itchy patches of skin.
  • Acne: this is perhaps the most common skin disorder. It occurs when hair follicles become clogged with dead skin cells and oil.
  • Melanoma: a type of skin cancer caused by exposure to excess sunlight.
  • Rosacea: a common rash found in middle-aged people. They have a tendency to flush and have small red bumps on the center of the face.
  • Psoriasis: this is another inflammatory skin disease. It causes red, flaky patches to appear on the skin.
  • Scabies: an itchy skin condition caused by the human scabies mite.
  • Shingles: also called herpes zoster, it is a painful blistering rash caused by a virus.
  • Lichen planus: an itchy non-infectious rash. The bumps have flat shiny tops.


Always read the label before buying or using a new product: it is a source of fundamental information. On the label you will find references to the manufacturer, country of origin, purpose of the product, tips about preservation, expiration date, and indications of the manner, precautions and limitations of use. Within the list of ingredients – which is mandatory for many countries – you can search for the substances to which you are allergic or intolerant, or which you have simply decided not to use for health reasons. When buying lower-priced cosmetic products, be extra careful if purchasing off the shelf or on the Internet. Remember that counterfeit cosmetics can be cheaper than original ones, but they do not guarantee quality, efficiency and safety. Price depends on formula composition and good manufacturing practices, as well as packaging and advertising costs. If you have naturally dark skin, you should know that skin whiteners are potentially dangerous as they may contain toxic substances. The most hazardous substances used in whiteners/bleachers are Mercury and other substances such as Cortisone, which are authorized as medicine but not as cosmetics. As far as legally-commercialized cosmetics are concerned, the problem does not arise.


Mens skin is about 25% thicker than womens, with more collagen, more and larger hair follicles, and greater sebum production, all of which is mainly due to increased testosterone production. These structural differences make mens skin less sensitive and able to handle stronger ingredients. However, it also makes them a bit more acne-prone, so they dont need as many heavy, cream-based products. Other factors, such as daily shaving, spending more time outdoors and being at a higher risk for skin cancer, make skin-repairing ingredients and SPF even more essential for men. Men generally prefer fragrance-free and all-in-one products that are easy to use, whereas women tend to prefer pleasing scents and longer, more luxurious routines. Womens products should have ingredients that cater to the fact that they have thinner skin, tend to lose moisture to a greater degree, and tend to suffer photo-damage at an earlier age. Men can exfoliate more often than women. With thicker skin, a man can use a gentle scrub pretty much every day. Men often have larger pores and produce more oil. On the upside, this means that their skin is usually less dry and will age well. The down side? More blackheads and longer-lasting acne. Hyperpigmentation (discoloration of the skin) is less of an issue for men since they do not experience the type of hormonal activity that contributes to changes in skin color. Mens skin has higher collagen density than womens, meaning that, with proper skin care and regular sun protection, a mans skin could theoretically age much slower than a womens.


For the transgender individual whose misrepresentative outer appearance is at the root of his or her personal conflict, skin is a critical component of establishing self-harmony. Physical transformation often begins with hormonal intervention, which, if done early enough, can interfere with puberty and help guide natural contouring into the desired gender. Studies of hormone use in transgender individuals show potential skin-related side effects, with testosterone creating an oilier canvas, and estrogens leading to dryness and body hair loss. For example, a transgender man may in turn experience worsened acne, while, conversely, a transgender woman may develop eczema and itchiness. As for the face, invasive surgery is the most widely used technique to reshape ones facial structure into its desired gender. Unfortunately, many individuals rely on non-professionals for their procedures, incurring devastating consequences ranging from nodules and swelling to infections. Exogenous hormones affect hair and sebum production, gender-confirming surgeries often require dermatologic pre- and postoperative interventions, and postoperative anatomy may show unique presentations of routine skin conditions. Given the complexities of the transitioning process, transgender individuals may face unique dermatologic needs in addition to routine care. Transgender individuals have to consider that their skin characteristics are definitely different from typical mens and womens. We highly recommend that transgender customers use the FRAME® Made-To-Measure” skincare kit, provided by our sister brand. 


Many things! Some we cannot do anything about; others we can influence. One thing that we cannot change is the natural ageing process. With time, we all get visible lines on our face and body. It is natural for our face to lose some of its youthful fullness. We notice our skin becoming thinner and drier. The medical term for this type of ageing is intrinsic ageing.” That being said, we can influence another type of ageing that affects our skin: our collective environment and lifestyle choices. These can cause our skin to age prematurely. The medical term for this type of ageing is extrinsic ageing.” By taking certain preventive actions, we can slow the effects that this type of ageing has on our skin. Our mission at mìsula® is to assist you as you navigate this preventive and curative process.


Knowledge about individual skin properties is useful when choosing adequate skin care products and treatment regimens. Individual skin type may change over time due to factors that are either external (e.g. climate, skin care) or internal (e.g. medications, hormonal changes). Skin characteristics are not static. Several skin types may be present simultaneously, in different areas, on an individual (e.g. oily skin with irritated skin patches).

NORMAL SKIN: Displays a smooth texture and a rosy, clear surface, with fine pores. There are no visible blemishes, greasy patches or flaky areas. Sebum production, moisture content, keratinisation and desquamation are well-balanced. Normal skin is often found in young people.

DRY SKIN: Characterized by a lack of moisture in its corneous layer, resulting in tightness and even flaking. The skin appears dull, especially on the cheeks and around the eyes. It may lack elasticity, with accentuated fine lines and wrinkles. In more severe cases, itching and burning may occur. Extremely dry skin shows signs of cracking and fissuring. Dry skin can be genetically determined or triggered by factors such as climate, cosmetics and medications. It can be a natural consequence of the ageing process, as sebum production slows down.

OILY SKIN: Characterized by an increased amount of lipids on the skin surface due to overactive sebaceous glands. It is shiny and thick, often with enlarged pores. Oily skin is prone to blackheads and other blemishes. It occurs more often in men than in women, and it predominantly affects adolescents and younger people.

COMBINATION SKIN: Rather dry in some parts of the body and oily in other places. Mixed facial skin tends toward dryness on the cheeks and around the eyes while being oily in the t-zone (nose, forehead, chin). The dry parts and the oily parts require different skin care regimens. This skin type is very common. 

SENSITIVE SKIN: Not a skin type, but rather a symptom caused by various factors. Patients tend to describe their skin as “sensitive” if it frequently reacts with redness, itching, burning or dryness to the topical application of skin care products. Causes for this condition may be an underlying skin disorder, allergies, contact with irritants in certain products, or the use of inadequate products that have not been adjusted according to skin type. This most commonly affects facial skin. 

MATURE SKIN: With age, the skins sebum production slows down, often leading to increased dryness, an accentuation of fine lines and wrinkles, and flakiness. Skin may appear dull and eventually start to itch and burn. In women, the shifting balance of hormones with menopause causes various changes. Women’s skin tends to thin considerably after menopause, and thus may become more sensitive to sun damage and weather extremes. Another problem is hyper-pigmentation, especially in people with a long history of sun exposure. While it is important to meet the needs of mature skin, it is necessary to keep in mind that not all people over 40 experience the above-mentioned problems. Therefore, different skin care regimens may be necessary in people of the same age according to their skin type.


   •     Protect your skin from the sun every day. Whether spending a day at the beach or running errands, sun protection is essential. You can protect your skin by seeking shade, covering up with clothing, and using sunscreen that is broad-spectrum, SPF 30 (or higher), and water-resistant. You should apply sunscreen every day to all parts of skin not covered by clothing. mìsula® daily creams contain the right SPF protection.

   •     Apply self-tanner rather than get a tan. Every time you get a tan, you prematurely age your skin. This holds true if you get a tan from the sun, a tanning bed, or other indoor tanning equipment. All emit harmful UV rays that accelerate how quickly your skin ages.

   •     If you smoke, stop or smoke less. Smoking greatly speeds up how quickly skin ages. It causes wrinkles and a dull, sallow complexion.

   •     Avoid repetitive facial expressions. When you make a facial expression, you contract the underlying muscles. If you repeatedly contract the same muscles for many years, these lines become permanent. Wearing sunglasses can help reduce lines caused by squinting.

   •     Eat a healthy, well-balanced diet and include the right supplements.

   •     Drink less alcohol. Alcohol is rough on the skin. It dehydrates skin, and in time, damages it, making us look older.

   •     Exercise most days of the week. Findings from a few studies suggest that moderate exercise can improve circulation and boost the immune system. This, in turn, may give the skin a more youthful appearance.

   •     Cleanse your skin gently. Scrubbing your skin clean can irritate your skin. Irritating your skin accelerates skin aging. Gentle washing helps to remove pollution, makeup, and other substances without irritating your skin.

   •     Wash your face with fresh water twice a day and after sweating heavily. Perspiration, especially when wearing a hat or helmet, irritates the skin, so you want to wash your skin as soon as possible after sweating.

   •     Apply a facial moisturizer every day. Moisturizer traps water in our skin, giving it a more youthful appearance.

   •     Stop using skin care products that sting or burn. When your skin burns or stings, it means your skin is irritated. Irritating your skin can make it look older. Some anti-aging products prescribed by a dermatologist may burn or sting. Be sure to let your dermatologist know.


We are trying to do something totally new in this field. mìsula® is not just “another” cosmetics and healthcare company. What we’re doing has the potential to have a major impact on human’s skin ageing and health. There aren’t many opportunities where you can make that statement, but it’s crucial that you do it right, because if you  do there will be a whole new venue for improving skin and body health that wasn’t there before. We carefully identify the most promising natural compounds to develop based on preclinical studies in the scientific literature and make them available to improve skin health in a way that is both rigorous and rapid. Here below you can read about few of the most important ingredients that our labs are seriously taking in consideration:

Hyaluronic Acid – Don’t let the name fool you. Hyaluronic acid isn’t an acid in the way you may think. Unlike salicylic, glycolic, and lactic acids, hyaluronic acid doesn’t remove dead cells from your skin. On the contrary, it actually adds something absolutely vital to optimal skin health: water. Nature’s most powerful water magnet. This ingredient’s super power? It can hold 1,000 times its own weight in water. (That’s sort of like you holding up a whale. Crazy, right?).  Hyaluronic acid is naturally present within your entire body and has the consistency of a viscous gel. It acts as a lubricant to help your joints, muscles, and nerves function smoothly. Think of it like the oil in a car engine. So what specifically does it do for your skin? It is the supreme humectant, not only drawing vital water into your skin, but also holding on to it and preventing moisture loss. This provides both immediate and long-term hydration benefits, so your skin can maintain a plump, hydrated, radiant, and smooth appearance. Hyaluronic acid also serves another key function in optimal skin health. It strengthens your moisture barrier, which is the outermost layer of your skin and your first line of defense against environmental aggressors. Think of your moisture barrier as the roof of a house. When it’s intact, it protects everything inside, but when it’s leaky, damage occurs. When your moisture barrier is intact, your skin appears and feels smooth, soft, and plump. If your moisture barrier is damaged, your skin looks dry and rough. (Think of dry skin cells flaking off your skin as a tile slipping off the roof of the house.) The more damaged your moisture barrier, the harder it is to reverse issues like dehydration, wrinkles, hyperpigmentation, and breakouts. Hyaluronic acid fills in the spaces between skin’s essential support structures, keeping your moisture barrier strong and cushioned. Who needs hyaluronic acid? Everyone! Your moisture barrier can be compromised daily by environmental factors like indoor heating, sun exposure, dehydration, pollution, and dirt. Additionally, your body naturally loses about one pint of water a day, which can affect your skin’s level of hydration, especially if you fall into the 75% of people who are chronically dehydrated. But hyaluronic acid isn’t just for dry skin, and it isn’t just for winter either. Every skin type would look its most youthful, plump, and radiant with an optimized moisture barrier. Also keep in mind that your ability to retain water and naturally produce hyaluronic acid declines as you age, which can exacerbate increased dryness, fine lines, wrinkles, and sagging. Make sure hyaluronic acid is part of your skin care regimen. Hyaluronic acid is a key ingredient in many moisturizers and serums and should be used day and night.  But don’t be scared that this type of intense hydration has to come in a thick cream. Case in point: Clinique Moisture Surge Extended Thirst Relief, which has a lightweight gel texture. This serum-in-a-jar actually has two types of hyaluronic acid—one that works immediately on the uppermost layers of your skin, and another variant that penetrates deeper. Use it daily for immediate and long-lasting hydration, or tap it over makeup for a midday shot of extra moisture. Another hyaluronic acid superstar: Clinique Smart Broad Spectrum SPF 15 Custom-Repair Moisturizer, which is not only loaded with it, but it also helps reduce the 4 major signs of aging with its powerful blend of peptides, proteins, and antioxidants.

Probiotics & Bacteria – The discovery of the skin microbiome is a revolutionary scientifc breakthrough as it presents an opportunity for the development of smarter cosmetics. In and on our bodies, microbial cells outnumber human cells by a factor of 10. It is increasingly apparent that this collective set of micro-organisms contributes genetic diversity, modulates disease, influences metabolic processes, and is essential for immunity. The human microbiome is also dynamic, and changes associated with health and disease have been described and mechanistically investigated. The microbiome is also a prime target for manipulation to influence health and disease processes, including skin aging. The concept of probiotic bacteria in cosmetics is considerably evolving. Clinical and experimental studies extensively document that probiotic bacteria can benefit the skin when applied topically, just as their oral consumption is associated with intestinal benefits. Scientific and evidence-based reports strengthen the assumption that certain probiotics can contribute to modulate cutaneous microflora, lipid barrier, and skin immune system, leading to the preservation of the skin homeostasis and promoting healthy skin. Topical applications of probiotics targeting the skin microbiota may offer promise in the realm of anti-aging. For example, certain metabolites produced by skin microbiota may offer beneft by modulating cutaneous pro-and anti- infiammatory responses, similar to what has been shown in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics are de ned by The World Health Organization as a live microbial culture product which beneficially influences the health and nutrition of the host. In their truest sense, probiotics are bacteria. Given that live bacteria cannot be incorporated into cosmetics, beauty manufacturers looking to capitalize on the benefits associated with probiotics have investigated the option of incorporating bacterial lysates into their formulations. The understanding being that these deliver similar probiotic benefits.

Photoageing – A variety of environmental stresses, particularly ultraviolet light, can damage sun-exposed areas of the skin, such as the face and neck, and accelerate premature aging. Skin aging that is associated with ultraviolet radiation exposure is referred to as photoaging. Exposure to ultraviolet light initiates and activates a complex cascade of biochemical reactions in human skin, including the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species that stimulate in ammatory processes. Ultraviolet radiation causes depletion of cellular antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, initiates DNA damage, activates the neuroendocrine system leading to immunosuppression and release of neuroendocrine mediators, and causes increased synthesis and release of pro-infiammatory mediators from a variety of skin cells. The result of all these effects is infiammation, free radical generation, and the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs break down the extracellular matrix and collagen in the skin leading to wrinkles,  fine lines, and loss of skin elasticity. Ultraviolet radiation may account for up to 80% of visible signs of aging in the skin, including dry appearance, scalping, wrinkling and impaired pigmentation, and photoaging correlates with cancer risk.

Neurocosmetic Actives – The cutaneous nervous system is a newer aspect of the skin cosmetic formulators are addressing to promote a healthy, youthful appearance. The use of neurocosmetics in formulations can have an effect on how the brain responds to topical treatment. Neurocosmetics targets nerve clusters sensitive to heat, cold, pain, itch and pressure to physiologically act on the mind via the skin. These receptors send signals through the skin to the spinal cord, which are then transmitted up to the cerebral cortex of the brain. The concept is based on the science of neurotransmitters, or chemical vectors of nerve information. These mediators are synthesized by every skin cell and interact between the nerve system and the skin. For that reason, neurocosmetics actives play a significant role in skin balance by acting on these messengers. Neurotransmitters are chemical messages which are known to be released by skin nerve  bers. Skin cells such as keratinocytes, melanocytes, and  broblasts have many similar characteristics as nerve cells, as both types of cells synthesize and secrete neurotransmitters and express receptors at their surface. The release of neurotransmitters can be induced by physical, chemical, or even emotional stimulus. Over 200 neurotransmitters have been identified, with over 25 being present in the skin.These skin neurotransmitters include neuropeptides and non-peptidic neurotransmitters. Neurocosmetic actives are topical ingredients that work on the cutaneous nervous system to restore the mediator-receptor balance in the skin. An effective neurocosmetic active ingredient can either modulate neurotransmitter effects, neurotransmitter skin synthesis, or a ffect the activity of neuropeptide receptors. Nerves endings have key functions and place in the skin. In the dermis they are continuously communicating with  broblasts and the aging of neurons may impact  broblasts and consequently skin aging. Neurocosmetic anti-aging strategies focus on the impact of neurons on skin homeostasis.

Liposomes / Micro-Incapsulated Hyaluronic Acid – Skin, being the human body’s largest organ, is the  first line of defense against the external environment. Active ingredients affect the skin through a multitude of mechanisms to either deliver or propagate the specific desired result. Extensive research has been conducted to determine how to deliver actives through the stratum corneum to varying depths of the skin. One conclusion of this research has shown the preferred mechanism for delivering active ingredients into the skin is by the way of liposome incorporation. Liposomes are microscopic spherical, self-enclosed capsules in which a phospholipid bilayer sequesters hydrophilic materials. The phospholipid bilayer orients based on the the polar head region assembling towards the aqueous phase, while the nonpolar tail orientates towards the inside of the sphere. This system allows for encapsulation of both lipophilic and hydrophilic components. The hydrophilic exterior of the bilayer protects the incorporated components from degradation while also enhancing the delivery of the actives into the skin. In addition, the vesicular structure liposomes exhibit mimic that of the skin’s own natural stratum corneum. This exible vesicular structure coupled with the amphiphilic nature of phospholipids creates a transdermal vehicle to deliver the encapsulated materials to the preferred destination. Liposomes were  first described by Dr. Alec D. Bangham in 1961 at Braham Institute in Cambridge. While testing the institute’s new electron microscope, negative stain added to dry phospholipids provided the  first real evidence that the cell membrane was a bilayer lipid structure. Liposomes were then designed as artificial cell models to study cell membranes and interactions. Since then, vast amounts of research have detailed liposome mechanisms in drug delivery, personal care, and even in food. Marketed as containing a Liposome Complex which claimed to effectively convey active ingredients into the skin within in microcapsules 300 times smaller than a normal cell was the consumer’s  first glimpse at liposomes in action. When non-encapsulated materials are placed on the skin, a range of factors determine the fate of the material. Stability, solubility, lipophilicity, and size are all obstacles the active must overcome the epidermal barrier. Liposomes, which resemble the basic structures of cellular membranes, create a more bene ficial interaction with skin cells.The structure and amphiphilic nature allows the liposomes to penetrate the epidermal barrier and travel deeper than free materials to deliver the anticipated results. A study was published in the DovePress on Clinical, Cosmetic, and Investigation Dermatology titled “Phosphatidylcholine liposomes as carriers to improve topical ascorbic acid treatment of skin disorders” analyzed liposomes and human skin penetration via Franz cells. Liposomes’ proven delivery system yields a multitude of benefits; enhancing the penetration of actives yielding increased efficacy, offering time release mechanisms, protecting and delivering otherwise unstable ingredients, and opening the door to the ability to target specifc cells. Liposomes can differ in size with a range in diameter between 150 – 3500nm, and they can be found in unilamellar and multilamellar forms. While multilamellar structures are great for specific tasks, they are not stable as raw materials or in formulations. Unilamellar vesicles are small, exceptionally stable molecules offering high stability for the incorporation into personal care products.

Actieves – Commonly used active ingredients in topical application products intended to delay visible signs of aging include Vitamins A, C and E, hyaluronic acid, alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), and beta hydroxy acids (BHAs). These actives have an abundance of data available demonstrating their benefits in cosmetics. Vitamin A is used in topical treatment to increase the rate of cell division and improve wrinkling, coarseness, hyper pigmentation and roughness associated with over exposure to the sun. Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant that can accelerate wound healing and play an integral role in elastin and collagen synthesis. Vitamin E is an antioxidant with signi cant moisturizing properties, anti-infiammatory effects and may provide protection from UV damage. AHAs and BHAs can cause increased skin thickness, improvement in skin elasticity and increased collagen content and glycosaminoglycans.

Retinol – Is a natural form of Vitamin A is a tried-and-true method for decreasing signs of aging. Till date, there are more than 700 published studies proving that Retinol reduces the appearance of wrinkles and boosts the thickness and elasticity of the skin. Dermatologists has researched retinol for years and have found ample evidence that shows retinol indeeds improves the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.

Vitamin C –  Is another ingredient we used. It is known to play a role in collagen synthesis. In addition, when topically applied it helps mop up the free radicals that trigger wrinkling, sagging and other aging changes.

Vitamin E – Also called “the protector” is the other ingredient we used. A plethora of skincare studies has documented Vitamin E’s potent ability to neutralize skin damaging free radicals. In one such study, Vitamin E when used before UV exposure, skin appears less red, swollen and dry.

Collagen – For the purpose of moisturizing your skin, to keep it hydrated and supple. With these anti-aging ingredients, FRAME  is easily the most powerful and immediate face lift solution in the market today.

Glutathione – Is one of the best detoxifiers that I know. It is absolutely your best protection against the toxins that abound in food, air, and water, and it has remarkable anti-aging properties as well. Composed of three amino acids, glutathione is the single most powerful antioxidant that your body produces. It’s made in the liver, so if your liver isn’t functioning optimally, you are even more in need of supplementation. DNA protection; Immune support; Mitochondrial support (mitochondria are the portions of your cells that pump out energy, somitochrondial support both gives you more energy and boosts your metabolism to maintain a healthy weight); Reduction of inflammation; Protection against heart disease, cancer, neurological decline, dementia, and other chronic diseases. Glutathione is known as an anti-aging supplement, since low glutathione levels have been linked to every major aging process in the human body. After the age of 20, your natural production of glutathione slows down, dropping about 10 percent with every passing decade. By the time you reach age 60, you’re making only about half as much glutathione as you did in your teens, which contributes to flagging energy, lowered immunity, and many of the minor and major ailments that we frequently associate with aging. Taking glutathione supplements can turn this process around, keeping you vital and fit no matter how old you are. Foods that boost Glutathione are: Garlic; Onions; Asparagus; Avocado; Sprouts; Cabbage; Cauliflower; Kale; Parsley; Watercress; Cinnamon; Cardamom and Curcumin.

Magnesium – Is a mineral found in your blood, bones, tissues, and organs. It’s crucial for the optimal functioning of your heart, brain, and musculoskeletal, digestive, and circulatory systems, and it’s responsible for the correct metabolic function of more than 350 enzymes in your body. Magnesium helps regulate blood pressure, strengthens muscles and bones, and keeps the immune system strong. Magnesium is a powerful muscle relaxant which can ease constipation (as your intestinal walls relax) and lower blood pressure (as your arterial walls relax). The relaxation that magnesium engenders can also help you fall asleep more easily. And if you’re prone to muscle cramping, that’s often a sign that you’re short of magnesium—and it’s a problem that additional magnesium can remedy. Magnesium also helps your body detox. It helps clear both toxins and heavy metals. As with other key nutrients, it can be hard to get enough magnesium just from diet. Some studies estimate that up to 80 percent of us are deficient in magnesium. And the costs for shorting yourself on magnesium are high. In addition to taking a supplement, we advise you to load up on dietary sources of magnesium. You can focus on whole foods and green drinks—drinks made from leafy greens and spinach, both of which are rich in magnesium. The foods that contain magnesium are: Wild-caught Pacific halibut; Leafy greens; Spinach; Black beans; Pumpkin seeds; Squash seeds; Green drinks

CoQ10 – This remarkable antioxidant is a powerful anti-aging supplement that will boost your energy, protect your heart, and support your cellular health. If you have any concerns about aging, fatigue, or heart disease, take CoQ10, especially if you are over 40. If you take statins, CoQ10 supplements are even more important, since statins can lower your CoQ10 levels by as much as 40 percent because they inhibit your body’s synthesis of it. This is not a “side effect” of statins but a direct inherent function of these drugs.The foods that contain CoQ10 are: Grass-fed red meat; Organ meats; Broccoli and Spinach.

Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA)- Is found in every cell of your body. It’s a potent, versatile antioxidant that fights inflammation, balances blood sugar, and protects your skin. Its effect is magnified by the way it boosts the effectiveness of other antioxidants in your body. ALA also promotes nerve health, helps remove heavy metals from the body, and purifies the liver. Although your body does produce ALA, it often doesn’t make as much as you need, so you have to look to outside sources—both through supplements and in your diet. Because insulin resistance and dysfunctional sugar metabolism is such a common underlying issue when we get old and fat, ALA is one of my go-to supplements for virtually all of my over-40 patients as well as an increasing number of younger ones. The foods that contain Alpha-Lipoic Acid are: Organ meats; Broccoli and Spinach.